How a smart home works

What is a smart home?

Smart home is a common name for systems of electrical appliances and devices connected to a single network and controlled from a computer or smartphone. First, you need to install and configure the main part of the system, put your preferred scenarios in it, and then get hints or watch how the smart home itself turns off the water in the bathroom so that it does not overflow, changes the lighting in the evening to a calmer one, or starts a split system to maintain the desired temperature in the room. A smart home can consist of just a few elements, which are then added to new devices and laid out new scenarios.

What is a smart home made of

All elements of a smart home are divided into several groups:

the controller is the Foundation of a smart home. Its memory stores complex sets of actions for different situations. The device itself monitors the operation of the entire network and each individual device, as well as connects the smart home system with gadgets;
sensors-they receive information about the state of the house (humidity, temperature, human and animal movements, etc.) and transmit it to the controller;
performers are devices that directly implement the received commands. The relays turn on or off the light, the ball valve turns off the water;
control devices – devices that a person uses to give commands to a smart home, such as a remote control for an air conditioner or a light switch;
integrated equipment and web services – video cameras, equipment and Internet services that help you manage your smart home.
Classification of smart home

Modern equipment allows you to create smart homes that perform several hundred independent scenarios, as well as install small systems that regulate only a few parameters. In both cases, smart systems meet all the requirements of a smart home. According to the type of connection between elements, smart homes are divided into:


In wired smart homes, all elements are connected by wires. Such smart homes are more reliable, they practically do not have overloads, and they work faster. However, such systems are more complex and expensive: they require laying and masking a large number of cables. Therefore, it is desirable to combine the installation of a wired smart home with repairs or design at the construction stage of the house.

In wireless smart homes, structural elements communicate via radio signals. Such systems are installed much faster and easier, are cheaper, but the connection between the elements is less stable. If the wiring is correct, then such a smart home can be assembled with your own hands, without attracting specialists.

By type of management, houses are divided into:


Centralized systems are easy to manage, set up, and use. Decentralized systems allow you to continue working when one of the components fails, and they are more secure, although they require complex configuration, and are also more expensive due to duplication of blocks.